12 questions to teacher
“DO” turned to experienced teachers for advice: how to help a child cope with negative emotions at the beginning of the school year?
Elementary School FIRST FAILURES
It is difficult for a child to learn to write beautifully and read quickly. Fear of criticism causes reluctance to sit at the desk.
• What to do? “It is advisable to start preparing for school a few weeks before September 1,” advises Larisa Mikhalenko, a primary school teacher of the highest category at Tsaritsyno Agroindustrial Center, No. 548. “An ugly handwriting is easily corrected. If a child has problems with diction, for example, does not pronounce some letters , swallows the endings, he will not write and read correctly until this problem is resolved. In this case, you should contact a speech therapist. If the child is not doing well, ask the teacher not to call him to the blackboard until he answers. When reading aloud, ask only the first paragraph that the child is guaranteed to learn at home. When a child gets involved in school, the need for such requests will disappear. ”
He is strict and demanding, unlike the affectionate kindergarten teacher, who had excellent contact with the child. It’s hard for a child to get used to a new person. • What to do? “Try to find the first teacher with whom your child will be psychologically comfortable,” says Larisa Mikhalenko. - Connect parental intuition. When you choose a school and class, you should pay attention to teachers. For example, if the child is very active, and the teacher is slow, speaks with an arrangement, in a sticky voice, they will probably annoy each other. But it happens that parents are happy with the teacher, and the student complains about him. Then it makes sense to turn to a psychologist. Often parents blame the child, considering him capricious, or the teacher, thinking that he is not professional. And they don’t see the whole picture. I had a case when a girl, coming from school, constantly complained to my parents about me. As the psychologist explained, she manipulated her mother in this way. On the advice of a specialist, I began to call her mother every evening and tell how we talked in the afternoon. And the next morning, the three of us and the girl sorted out the conflicts. We have a good relationship. ”
He cannot sit a lesson. Turns around like a yule. He is bored, he wants to play and fool around ... • What to do? “Every child is able to sit 40 minutes. In the lower grades, every 20 minutes, children change their occupation, this allows them to concentrate their attention. Sometimes injustice depends on the fact that parents bring the child to school a minute before the start of classes. Naturally, the baby’s first lesson, or even all day, will be oiled. He will be nervous due to a sense of time pressure. This will affect his perseverance. It is advisable to bring the child to school 15 minutes before the first lesson so that he can prepare for classes, communicate with classmates, ”the teacher recommends.
After the summer holidays, it is difficult for a child to get used to the fact that you need not only to sit at a desk, but also to do homework. What to do? “Parents should determine which schedule and algorithm for completing homework is convenient for their child. Some people like to start with a simple assignment. Another is to snoop over a difficult equation, and then solve easy problems. For the third, a great incentive is the sports section in the evening. In this case, you can agree with the young athlete that the lessons are carried out strictly before training. Many children are better at hearing information. Sometimes adults do not want to read chapters from a textbook to a child. In vain! If the child is more comfortable, there will be no harm. After all, you can read paragraphs in turn. In no case should a teacher condemn a child, they say, how much she asked. If you have a complaint about this, it is better to discuss them with the teacher personally, ”recalls Larisa Mikhalenko.
Middle classes TRANSITION PERIOD
Now everything is different: a new environment, a new schedule and items. And most importantly, different teachers. • What to do? “Many children going to fifth grade have reduced academic performance. A child cannot get used to different teachers. Feel free to contact a psychologist - his help will be invaluable. Children at the beginning of the fifth grade are very tired of unusual loads, so after school give your child an hour to rest. To do homework together at first, ”advises Lana Priene, a 26-year-old teacher and teacher of English.
The child grew up quickly and is now above everyone else in the class. Feels like a black sheep. • What to do? “Physically, all children develop in different ways, and sometimes those who are ahead or, conversely, do not catch up with others, feel like outcasts. Some girls are already using makeup and discussing dates, while others are not interested. And the former begin to make fun of the latter, ”says Svetlana Smirnova, a teacher of Russian language and literature. - In this case, discuss this problem with the class teacher. Teachers enjoy authority. Schoolchildren listen to them. You can connect a school psychologist. But do not force the child to change, and often speak to him that there are no identical people. ”
SUCH DIFFERENT CHILDREN
My child has difficulty communicating with classmates. • What to do? “Parents can help the child solve such problems,” continues Svetlana Smirnova. - Teach him to compromise and negotiate. Extra-curricular communication is of great importance for students. During joint trips and other extra-curricular activities, children find new topics for discussion, common interests. ” Read them!
The child loves circles and sections. But he goes to school reluctantly. • What to do? “There is no need to forbid him to engage in music, sports or in a theater workshop. Support all his undertakings. But at the same time, remind you that you cannot enter a university without a certificate with good grades, ”said Lana Prini. “Any student claiming:“ I don't want to study! ” “You need to properly motivate,” adds psychologist Alena Lipatova. - Praise him for good marks, do not forget to remind him of his successes in the past. If he is saddened by his failures, support him. ”
The son does not want to go to school because of a conflict with classmates and a teacher. It turned out that those guys with whom he quarreled came up with mocking nicknames for him. • What to do? “If a student previously had conflicts with classmates, it is obvious that he is afraid of a repetition of the quarrel. Parents will have to find the right solution to this problem with their child. It is good if the boy himself finds a way out of the situation, - advises psychologist Alena Lipatova. - Invite him to understand what happened together and develop a line of behavior. If the problem is in conflict with the teacher, the situation is more complicated. In this case, parents need to listen to the other side - to talk with the teacher - and draw their conclusions. ”
High School Students ADULT LIFE
A teenage son says that he is tired of learning. He wants to become an adult and start working soon. At least a janitor. • What to do? “Usually, children have a desire to go to janitors if their parents constantly remind them to pass the exam well,” says Lana Priene. - Teachers are also pushing him. As a result, the teenager realizes with horror - for everything that he needs to master, there will not be enough time or strength. Hence the protest. How should parents behave? After 9th grade, talk to him seriously about his plans for the future. He must decide what profession he will receive. It is advisable to go together to the educational institution that he chooses. And often say: “You will succeed!” At this age, support is crucial. ” “You do not need to demand from him the highest score in literature if he loves mathematics. It’s better to concentrate on his favorite subject and tell more often how much new and interesting he can learn if he continues his studies, ”the psychologist adds. - In adolescence, children are inclined to social communication. This is also a good motivation: “Do you want to go to school? But what about friends, interesting conversations? ”
FEAR BEFORE USE
My daughter is an excellent student, nevertheless she is very afraid of the exam, which she will have to pass this year. • What to do? “As a rule, two categories of schoolchildren are most afraid of the USE - excellent pupils and weak students. The first to get scared is not the highest rating. How so, they try so hard? The second is scary that they will fail. In both cases, students need a tutor. School teachers today, loaded with numerous reports and other things, are physically unable to properly prepare each high school student. Sometimes something is overlooked. And additional help at this moment is a guarantee of general peace, ”advises Svetlana Smirnova. - Another option - you can offer the teacher to carry out additional tasks on the principle: the strong help the weak. When excellent students explain the laggards. The benefits of both are: some repeat, others assimilate, and the teacher only controls the process. Separately, I will say how important it is for the parents themselves to remain calm. I have heard more than once that mothers and fathers try to solve the USE tasks on the Internet and, when they fail, they panic: “Since I have not decided how my child will pass this exam?” It is better for adults to discuss their experiences with colleagues or friends behind closed doors, but not with their child, who in this case will definitely be infected by your worries and fears. In general, it is not worth discussing school problems at home in a negative way. This is unlikely to help the child. "
My son is worried that after the summer holidays, school love moved to another desk. He is afraid that he will lose her affection. • What to do? “No matter what the child says that since love has not developed, he will not go to school anymore, in fact, he wants to go in order to still attract the attention of the object of his sympathy,” Svetlana Smirnova believes. - Together, change your image, come up with a new hairstyle, adjust his wardrobe. In high school, such actions by parents are important and necessary. Do not let him lock himself in, concentrate on his suffering. Let him go to theaters, attend thematic festivals, and communicate more with other peers. ”
HOW TO DEVELOP A CHILD'S craving for learning
Advises Natalia VISHNYA, family psychologist, teacher, author of the seminars “Who are successful children”, “Adolescent strategies”, “How to raise a talented child”, etc. 1. When preparing for school, it is more important to consider not the intellectual level, but psychological and physiological maturity. 2. The success of the child should bring joy to the parents. Belief in his success, trust and approval is the basis of children's solvency and activity at school. Parental fears and total control make a child insecure. 3. It makes no sense to send your baby to school before 6.5 years old. Even if the child reads well and easily solves problems, being psychologically immature, he will miss his desk. 4. School performance is not the most basic indicator of a child’s success. Maintain his interests and hobbies. Then by the end of school your child will be a harmoniously developed personality. 5. When choosing a school, give preference to the educational institution in which parents are treated as allies. 6. But do not strive to develop everything in a child all at once. It is necessary to clearly determine its most striking ability and at the first stage to bet on it. 7. Do not overload the kid with additional classes in studios, sections and circles. By the middle of the year, all first-graders accumulate psychological fatigue. 8. You need to teach your child to do homework from the first class. The task of parents and teachers is not to force them to study, but to inspire new knowledge and skills.
The Ministry of Education has approved a new standard for high school students. It spells out how and what they should study in grades 10 and 11.
So, students will mandatory study: physical education, life safety, Russian language and literature, mathematics, history (it can be replaced with a new subject “Russia in the world”). Other disciplines are elective and will be divided into 6 compulsory subject areas: “Philology”, “Foreign Languages”, “Social Sciences”, “Mathematics and Computer Science”, “Natural Sciences”, “Physical Education and Life Safety”. The student will have to choose one course from each. And a few additional subjects, for example: “Design”, “Psychology”, “Astronomy” or “Art”. An important feature of the new standard is the introduction of specialized training. Moving to high school, the student chooses in which direction he wants to specialize further. A new standard for high school students is introduced in September 2013.